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Killer Oceans Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

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How do we know? NASA's FAQs -

Bing - Google - Yahoo! - Temperature Converter - YaleEnvironment360

  • A brief takeaway from today's ocean and atmosphere balances. CO2 reacts in the atmosphere and takes part in cycling through green plant absorption and oceanic phytoplankton. With chlorophyll chemical reactions, this biomass emits oxygen into the atmosphere and oceans.
    CO2 enters the oceans where it remains for days to thousands of years, if not indefinitely. Encasement in an ocean bed by the shells and other ocean debrea bury it. Otherwise it
    moves along in deep oceans currents until it resurfaces with currents. It may then reenter the atmosphere.
  • Global Ocean heat increase: Our Killer Oceans' average temperature now resides at about 1 degree Centigrade higher than 140 years ago.
    It must inevitably continue to rise this century with the greatest rise in the upper 100 meters (300 feet), the "twilight zone" to some oceanographers. About 90 percent of reefs are threatened.
  • Greenhouse Gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor—
  • How do we know that carbon dioxide content is more dense now than before the industrial revolution? We analyze the carbon dioxide content air bubbles in my scores. Carbon dioxide content monitoring did not begin until 1958 when Charles Keeling set up a monitoring station on Manna Lao, Hawaii.
  • How much has the Global Ocean become acidic since per-industrial days? "Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the average pH of the Global Ocean has dropped by about 0.1 pH unit, making it 30 per cent more acidic than in per-industrial times."
  • Ocean surface water is generally less acidic and more alkaline than deep-ocean water. Also, surface ocean water now absorbs less CO2 than before per-industrial days. This means more CO2 remains in the atmosphere as a balance between ocean water and atmospheric CO2 levels shift with increasing CO2 emissions.
  • What is the current rate of CO2 doubling? 75 to 100 years - -
  • Is the Global Ocean more acidic now than before the industrial revolution?
    Yes. The average pH of the Global Ocean dropped 30 percent than before per-industrial days. By 2065 oceans will drop about 0.15 units more.
  • What is the natural level for ocean pH, (ancient).
    7.5 to 8.5. The higher pH, alkaline, occurs near the surface because plant photosynthesis like plankton and "sea weed" photosynthesize CO2, which reduces CO2 content and acidity.
  • Is surface ocean warmer than the deep-ocean water?
    No. Surface ocean water usually remains warmer than deep-ocean water. Warmer surface water holds less carbon dioxide than colder, deeper ocean water. The warmer surface water becomes, the less it serves as a carbon dioxide (CO2) sink. More CO2 then remains in the atmosphere heating the atmosphere.
  • Is ocean acidification higher or lower in the deep oceans? Higher. Because fewer plants grow deep in the oceans, less photosynthesis take place. Therefore, more CO2 resides to raise acidification, lower pH levels.
  • What is the natural level for ocean pH?
    Here's the numerical values: 7.5 to 8.5. Current acid levels now begin to drop below 7.5. CO2 levels from per-industrial days were about 278 parts per million (CO2) and today's levels are about The higher pH, alkaline, occurs near the surface because plant photosynthesis like plankton and "sea weed" photosynthesize CO2, which reduces CO2 content. 414.75 (Mona Loa). The atmospheric CO2 level drops in warmer months as photosynthesis increases. Deforestation does not help this process.
  • What's the concern with atmospheric water vapor? Water vapor amplifies climate changes because it acts as a reinforcing feedback

Mladenov, Philip V.. Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) (p. 13). OUP Oxford. Kindle Edition.